“The practice of torture and ill-treatment is still deeply entrenched in the [Chinese] criminal justice system.”
- United Nations Committee Against Torture 2015
Torture is an everyday reality in Tibet.
Torture is used by China as a weapon against dissent, creating a climate of fear.
Our findings show that torture, abuse and degradation of Tibetan political prisoners continue in Chinese-occupied Tibet and that prisoners continue to be killed from torture and convicted as a result of confessions obtained by torture.
I was hung by my shackles from an iron chair without any clothes and they tried all sorts of tortures while I was there, like beating my back with tiny metal sticks, kicking me and giving electric shocks to my mouth. The pain the chair caused was too extreme to feel any of the pain caused by the metal sticks and kicking. When they gave me electric shocks, I could feel nothing. I only smelt the burning of my own flesh.
- Golog Jigme Gyatso, Tibetan torture survivor
The techniques of torture
Free Tibet has found that political prisoners in Tibet are subjected to a range of torture techniques and cruel and degrading treatment. You can read about their experiences in their own words here.
Former prisoners have regularly reported being beaten with electric batons, butts of guns and other heavy objects. There were also repeated cases of detainees being subjected to electric shocks during interrogations.
Some Tibetan prisoners have been hung from the ceiling for periods lasting several hours. Others have reported being shackled to an iron "interrogation chair", which forces the detainee to bear their entire weight on their wrists and legs. Political prisoner Golog Jigme tells of how a senior prison officer warned other guards that if he spent any more time tied in this position it could kill him.
Prisoners are also subjected to cruel and degrading treatment. Several former prisoners reported being denied food and water, with one recalling that he and his fellow detainees had to drink water from a toilet. Prisoners have also been denied blankets and mattresses, despite the cold weather, or made to sit outside in freezing cold water. Access to political prisoners is tightly restricted, with access to doctors and lawyers regularly denied and family members regularly unaware of where the detainee is being held.
Deaths and disappearances
They said that however many people like me they killed, nobody would ever find out.
- Tenzin Namgyal, Tibetan torture survivor
Being detained in Tibet can be like disappearing from the face of the earth. Tibetans are often imprisoned after unfair trials and authorities do not provide information about why they have been arrested and where they are. Family members often do not know that their relatives have been detained, and those that do find out are not permitted to visit the prison.
Isolated from the world, Tibetan prisoners are at grave risk of torture and being killed in prison. In July 2015, Tenzin Delek Rinpoche, one of Tibet’s most high-profile political prisoners and a victim of torture, died suddenly in prison, 13 years into a twenty-two year sentence. Calls from international governments and organisations for medical parole had been ignored. Authorities then cremated Tenzin Delek Rinpoche’s remains against his family’s wishes. Authorities have also withheld bodies of other Tibetans that have died in custody, due to fears that the body will reveal evidence of mistreatment and the manner of their death. Families of deceased prisoners have also been threatened and told not to reveal any details of the death.
Torture and the law in China
Torture is forbidden under international law. The UN Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment and Chinese law defines torture as:
any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity.
Torture is also forbidden under Chinese law. China’s Criminal Procedure Law sets out a clear prohibition on the use of torture and Article 18 of this law explicitly describes torture as a “crime” that should be investigated.
Despite these obligations, in practice, Free Tibet has repeatedly found that torture of Tibetan prisoners continues while those responsible for it go unpunished. We have found no instance of any official being prosecuted for conducting or supporting torture in Tibet.
Torture and the United Nations
China is a signatory to the Convention Against Torture and, like other signatories, its compliance with the convention is assessed approximately every five years by the United Nations Committee Against Torture, a body of independent human rights experts.
China's most recent review was in 2015 and the committee issued its final report on December 2015. Chinese authorities had claimed to have tightened restrictions on torture with changes to their laws and insisted that torture in China is outlawed and that anyone found responsible is punished. The committee rebuked them for failing to provide the evidence to support their claims. It provided a long list of actions China must take to end torture.
The committee expressed particular concern about reports of torture in Tibet and identified particular ways in which Tibetan prisoners may be at risk, including the use of vaguely defined "crimes" such as "splittism", which allow the authorities to disregard some legal protections offered to other prisoners.
They specifically acknowledged "numerous reports from credible sources" about torture in Tibet. You can read the full report submitted to the committee by Free Tibet, Tibet Watch and political prisoner association Gu Chu Sum on the Tibet Watch website.
Hear four survivor testimonies, read by British actors Juliet Stevenson, Dominic West, Alan Rickman and David Threlfall. In most cases identities have been protected.
Read more case studies here, including written versions of the video testimonies as well as others included in our 2015 submission to the United Nations Committee Against Torture.
What we are doing
At the United Nations
- In February 2015, we submitted our first dossier of evidence to the Committee Against Torture. CAT raised almost all of the issues and cases we identified directly with the Chinese government.
- In October 2015, we submitted further detailed evidence to CAT, as it prepared for its final review of China.
- In November 2015, Free Tibet director Eleanor Byrne-Rosengren travelled to Geneva to meet with the committee.
With governments and international institutions
- Free Tibet is raising cases of torture and prisoners at risk of torture with governments. A number of those cases have already been taken up by governments, who have demanded information and action from China.
- We are pressuring governments to challenge China over torture, including in the "Human Rights dialogues" many of them conduct.
With the government of China
- Our international petition to Chinese Minister of Justice Wu Aiying called on China's government to fully implement the requirements of the UN Convention Against Torture and properly enforce its own laws.
With the public
- Free Tibet will continue to keep its supporters and the public informed about torture in Tibet and any responses to the evidence we have presented from the Chinese Government. We encourage to supporters to find the location of their nearest Chinese embassy and write them a letter, calling on them to end the use of torture in their justice system.